Diabetes affects millions and billions of people worldwide. Without diabetes treatment and cure, it can cause blindness, gangrene, and kidney failure that can further result in limb amputation. As per the World Health Organization, by 2030, diabetes will be the fifth leading cause of death. The increasing burden of this disease worldwide is well-known, and its effects on health care costs, morbidity, human suffering, and mortality will be definitely and permanently felt by most of the developed countries. Many new drugs are being discovered at a rapid pace, and from the past few years, many new classes of compounds and chemicals are seen for the treatment of diabetes.
Along with new drugs, a new class of surgeries has become increasingly available as an effective therapy for treatment. Here is a list of a few surgeries that have been introduced in recent years:
- Gastric restriction surgery
- Gastric bypass surgery
- Pancreas transplantation
- Kidney transplantation
- Islet transplantation
To get rid of trauma of major operations, Stem Cell Therapy for diabetes holds an immense promise for treating the deadly disease diabetes mellitus. As per various researches conducted on the ability of human embryonic stem cells to alter into islet cells, it has clearly defined the transcription factors and developmental stages involved in the process. As the clinical applications of embryonic cells are limited and even banned also, as a consequence, the alternative form of stem cell therapies in Utter Pradesh, like umbilical cord stem cells, bone-marrow derived stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells, has become an intense area for study. As per recent advances, stem cell therapies may turn in realistic treatment for diabetes.
Diabetes is in two forms: Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is the autoimmune disease where the immune system destroys the cells of the pancreas that make the hormone insulin. Insulin generally circulates in our bloodstreams after the meal and allows the cells of the body to take up the sugar and use it as a food. Without this insulin, the cells starve and the sugar that is build up in the bloodstream can damage the blood vessels, retina, and kidneys.
The potential cure for type-1 requires replacing the lost insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. Presently, the only cells that can be utilized to transplant the organs usually come from donated organs but these organs are short in supply. These insulin-producing transplants are actually risky, it is because as the cells can be rejected by the patient’s body in case they do not receive proper immune-suppressing drugs. To get a solution to this problem, stem cell center funded researchers have developed the methods to replace insulin-producing cells with the human Mesenchymal stem cells
One of the most beneficial strategies that are used to cure type-1 diabetes is to transplant the beta cells, which manages the blood-sugar levels and produce enough insulin that can reduce them. Stem cell therapy and treatment of Type-1 diabetes would replace the old cells that are lost and the new beta cells are generated. In people with type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakes the body’s own healthy cells for foreign invaders. The immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. After these beta cells are destroyed, the body is unable to produce insulin. Stem cells are really promising as they have the capability to regenerate our affected beta cells and also modulate immune system means to stop further beta cells deterioration.
Type-2 diabetes that makes 90% of the cases worldwide is hard to treat. Although, people with type-2 lose some of their insulin-producing cells, the main problem is somewhere else. Type-2 diabetes have insulin resistance that means insulin is present in the body itself but, the cells can no longer use this insulin to keep the blood sugar level in check. Stem Cell Therapy and Treatment of Type-2 Diabetes team have cultured the Mesenchymal stem cells and make them be safely implanted in diabetic patients so that insulin production starts again and control sugar level very well.